There are different ways to achieve asynchronous interaction in Oracle SOA Suite. In this blog article, I'll explain some differences between WS-Addressing and using correlation sets (in BPEL but also mostly valid for BPM). I'll cover topics like how to put the Service Bus between calls, possible integration patterns and technical challenges.
I will also shortly describe recovery options. You can of course depend on the fault management framework. This framework however does not catch for example a BPEL Assign activity gone wrong or a failed transformation. Developer defined error handling can sometimes leave holes if not thoroughly checked. If a process which should have performed a callback, terminates because of unexpected reasons, you might be able to manually perform recovery actions to achieve the same result as when the process was successful. This usually implies manually executing a callback to a calling service. Depending on your choice of implementation for asynchronous interaction, this callback can be easy or hard.